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 1 month ago '17        #1
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Real life Multiverse may be opened on July 5th…
 

 
CERN: Everything you need to know

The organization aims to uncover what the Universe is made of, and how it works.

Ceri Perkins7 days ago
What is CERN
The organization aims to uncover what the Universe is made of, and how it works.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research – known by its French acronym, CERN – is the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Located just outside of Geneva, Switzerland, it was established in 1954, as one of post-war Europe’s first joint ventures, with the express aim of halting the ‘brain drain’ of talented scientists leaving the continent for America.

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Today, more than 10,000 scientists hailing from more than 100 countries find themselves at CERN each year to use its facilities, which include some of the biggest and most complex scientific instruments ever created. Their goal: figure out what the Universe is made of and the laws of physics that dictate its behaviour.

What discoveries have been made at CERN?

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Highlights include the 1983 discovery of a pair of elementary particles called the W and Z bosons, which was later awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee helped invent the World Wide Web at CERN in 1989 by developing a way for computers to talk to each other, called hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP).

In 1995, CERN scientists were the first to create atoms of hydrogen’s antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen. In 2000, they discovered a new state of matter: a hot, dense, particle soup called quark-gluon plasma. And the Higgs boson was observed for the first time in 2012 at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC), scooping its discoverers a Nobel Prize.

This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the CMS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The Higgs boson is produced in the collision of
two protons at 14 TeV and quickly decays into four muons, a type of heavy electron which is not absorbed by the detector. The tracks of the other products of the collision are shown by lines and the energy deposited in the detector is shown in blue. © Lucas Taylor/ CERN
This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the CMS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The Higgs boson is produced in the collision of two protons at 14 TeV and quickly decays into four muons, a type of heavy electron which is not absorbed by the detector. The tracks of the other products of the collision are shown by lines and the energy deposited in the detector is shown in blue. © Lucas Taylor/ CERN

What is the Large Hadron Collider and how does it work?

The LHC is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator: a giant machine that physicists use to smash tiny subatomic particles together at extremely high speeds to see what happens.

The particle collisions recreate, for a fraction of a second, the conditions that existed moments after the Big Bang, when the Universe was born. By studying the debris of these collisions, physicists try to settle mysteries such as what matter is made of and how particles get their mass.

The LHC, which was completed in 2008, was built primarily to put the Standard Model of particle physics to the test. This wildly successful theory from the 1970s describes the interactions between the 17 elementary particles and three of the four fundamental forces of the Universe: electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force (gravity is the fourth).

CERN
An engineer works on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector a*sembly in a tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN during maintenance works © CERN

The Standard Model long predicted the existence of a never-before-seen elementary particle called the Higgs boson. After four decades of searching, in July 2012, physicists finally found it using the LHC. The discovery was a big win for fans of the Standard Model, but the theory is incomplete. It leaves many questions open, such as: what is dark matter? Why does the Universe contain more matter than antimatter? The LHC may help answer these questions.

The machine is buried deep underneath the France-Switzerland border near Geneva, in a circular tunnel nearly 27 kilometres long. It uses more than 1,000 35-tonne superconducting dipole magnets (cooled to a temperature of -271.3°C – colder than outer space!), to guide two beams of particles (usually protons) in opposite directions around the ring. The protons race around the 27-kilometre ring at almost the speed of light, completing over 11,000 laps per second.

At four points around the ring, the two opposing beams are steered so that they cross paths. Where the beams intersect, the protons within them slam into one another and shatter into smaller particles. Most of the particles produced in the collisions are highly unstable and decay into more stable forms almost instantly.

Seven enormous detectors – think of them as cathedral-sized digital cameras – are built around the four collision zones to capture data about these incredibly rare particles as they blaze briefly into existence.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. It consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. © CERN
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. It consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. © CERN

Why was the LHC turned off and is it up and running again?

The LHC was initially switched on in September 2008, with a plan to run for at least two decades. The plan includes a handful of long shutdowns where the machine is turned off so that scientists can access the equipment, perform repairs and make upgrades that allow it to operate at higher energy levels, which means more potential discoveries, during the following run.

The most recent long shutdown (LS2) began in 2019, and on 22 April 2022, the LHC was restarted after three years of maintenance work and upgrades, allowing protons to collide once again.

What does the future hold for CERN?

We spoke to Dr Monica Dunford, the physicist responsible for coordinating research on the Standard Model at the ATLAS Experiment (one of the two international collaborations credited with discovering the Higgs).

“With this next run, we’re expecting to get roughly double the total luminosity that we had by the end of Run 2,” says Dunford. Luminosity is how physicists describe the intensity of the particle beams. Doubling the luminosity doubles the likelihood of particles colliding.

Last summer, ATLAS announced the first-ever observation of three W bosons being produced simultaneously, from a data set taken between 2015 and 2018. Compared to creating a Higgs boson, ‘triple W’ production is about 60 times less likely to happen during proton collisions.

The ATLAS detector at CERN © 2022 CERN
The ATLAS detector at CERN © 2022 CERN

“It’s so rare a process that it makes us confident that maybe even in Run 3 we could possibly measure Higgs self-coupling,” says Dunford. A Higgs coupled to two others – a ‘trilinear Higgs’ – is about 2,000 times less likely than a regular Higgs.

Things could really start to get exciting after the next long shutdown, currently slated for 2026-2028. During that time, the LHC will be upgraded so heavily that it warrants a new name: the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Over 20-plus years of operating, the machine will work up to generating luminosities nearly 30 times greater than those produced to date, allowing physicists push the Standard Model to its limits.

The Future Circular Collider © 2022 CERN
The Future Circular Collider © 2022 CERN

And the search for new physics doesn’t end there. A proposed new collider – the Future Circular Collider (FCC) – would dwarf the LHC. “It’s really just a concept right now, but ultimately this would be an even more powerful collider that would be 100 kilometres around,” says Dunford. “The LHC ring would basically just be the booster ring for the FCC!”

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About our expert, Dr Monica Dunford

Monica is a physicist and post-doctoral research fellow based at CERN in Geneva. She works on the ATLAS detector's Trigger system and investigates W and Z interactions in proton-proton collisions.

Discover more:

Quarks are not behaving as they should, CERN has found
CERN's Trigger system - how the LHC copes with a constant flood of data
How to discover a new particlevisit this link https://www.sciencefocus. .. ence/cern/amp/
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119 comments
 

 1 month ago '17        #2
Hurricane  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1 OP
Props total: 3999 3 K  Slaps total: 971 971

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 1 month ago '17        #3
Hurricane  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1 OP
Props total: 3999 3 K  Slaps total: 971 971

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 1 month ago '14        #4
Kyu  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x39
Props total: 263742 263 K  Slaps total: 30786 30 K
+17   

 1 month ago '11        #5
lsg313 
Props total: 514 514  Slaps total: 64 64
Any tips on where and what to buy ?
+9   

 1 month ago '06        #6
Storchaveli  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x5
Props total: 36770 36 K  Slaps total: 9452 9 K

+64   

 1 month ago '15        #7
naledgestate 
Props total: 36488 36 K  Slaps total: 3244 3 K
 Storchaveli said



+43   

 1 month ago '18        #8
9shots92bricks  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x2
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I still haven’t gotten my powers after the eclipse
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 1 month ago '13        #9
Hayek  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x8
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 Kyu said
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 1 month ago '12        #10
cal classick 
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 1 month ago '09        #11
Puppet Master  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x17
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Here come the Bible thumpers
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 1 month ago '19        #12
305Trav  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1
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 1 month ago '04        #13
ddash 
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 9shots92bricks said
I still haven’t gotten my powers after the eclipse
You talking about the super n*gga powers for all black people like 2 years ago?
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 1 month ago '18        #14
9shots92bricks  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x2
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 ddash said
You talking about the super n*gga powers for all black people like 2 years ago?
Lol yeah it was specific date so that’s why I brought it up

I hate when people attach dates to sh*t like this lol
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 1 month ago '04        #15
ddash 
Props total: 82393 82 K  Slaps total: 6201 6 K
 9shots92bricks said
Lol yeah it was specific date so that’s why I brought it up

I hate when people attach dates to sh*t like this lol
MAN DONT REMIND OF THAT sh*t ahahahah smh.I had my fit and everything ready for it lol.

I think it was December 20th or something lol.I was like maybe its a slight delay but sh*t never came smh.
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 1 month ago '18        #16
9shots92bricks  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x2
Props total: 15568 15 K  Slaps total: 2337 2 K
 ddash said
MAN DONT REMIND OF THAT sh*t ahahahah smh.I had my fit and everything ready for it lol.

I think it was December 20th or something lol.I was like maybe its a slight delay but sh*t never came smh.


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 1 month ago '04        #17
soulof585  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1
Props total: 1450 1 K  Slaps total: 284 284
That organization is into some crazy stuff… #darkside
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 1 month ago '15        #18
CZNM22  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x2
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sh*ts all good until we end up like them n*ggas off The Mist.

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 1 month ago '20        #19
Gen Anti Fruit  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x29
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It’s all fun and science until it’s EVENT HORIZON in this bi*ch.
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 1 month ago '15        #20
CZNM22  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x2
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 Gen Anti Fruit said
It’s all fun and science until it’s EVENT HORIZON in this bi*ch.
One of my favorite movies of all time. They were supposed to be doing a release of an uncut version with the deleted scenes that never made the theatrical release. They had a pretty big recovery effort going a couple of years ago.
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 1 month ago '20        #21
Gen Anti Fruit  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x29
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 CZNM22 said
One of my favorite movies of all time. They were supposed to be doing a release of an uncut version with the deleted scenes that never made the theatrical release. They had a pretty big recovery effort going a couple of years ago.
One of my favorites as well. I heard about them releasing an uncut as well but never kept up with if it ever happened. If it was only a couple years ago we might see some progress next time around.
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 1 month ago '04        #22
realkilla3 
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The way sh*ts going right now I wouldn't mind a universal invasion they might have cheap gas on the other side
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 1 month ago '04        #23
qutaboi225  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x16
Props total: 61354 61 K  Slaps total: 7429 7 K
Pretty sure they opened a portal and distorted reality when Trump was elected. World been bat sh*t crazy ever since. It's been my theory that they shook up the multiverse when they cranked that bi*ch up the last time.
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 1 month ago '11        #24
kevin boogz  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x8
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 Gen Anti Fruit said
One of my favorites as well. I heard about them releasing an uncut as well but never kept up with if it ever happened. If it was only a couple years ago we might see some progress next time around.
 CZNM22 said
One of my favorite movies of all time. They were supposed to be doing a release of an uncut version with the deleted scenes that never made the theatrical release. They had a pretty big recovery effort going a couple of years ago.
apparently the deleted parts were really deleted as in they could not recover them.
so it is not going to happen sadly.
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 1 month ago '19        #25
ZigZag  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x30
Props total: 51005 51 K  Slaps total: 12276 12 K

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