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May 19 - How Often Can You Be Infected With the Coronavirus?



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 1 month ago '17        #1
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Ymmot  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x5
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May 19 - How Often Can You Be Infected With the Coronavirus?
 

 
The spread of the Omicron variant has given scientists an unsettling answer: repeatedly, sometimes within months.

A virus that shows no signs of disappearing, variants that are adept at dodging the body’s defenses, and waves of infections two, maybe three times a year — this may be the future of Covid-19, some scientists now fear.

The central problem is that the coronavirus has become more adept at reinfecting people. Already, those infected with the first Omicron variant are reporting second infections with the newer versions of the variant — BA.2 or BA2.12.1 in the United States, or BA.4 and BA.5 in South Africa.

Those people may go on to have third or fourth infections, even within this year, researchers said in interviews. And some small fraction may have symptoms that persist for months or years, a condition known as long Covid.

“It seems likely to me that that’s going to sort of be a long-term pattern,” said Juliet Pulliam, an epidemiologist at Stellenbosch University in South Africa.

“The virus is going to keep evolving,” she added. “And there are probably going to be a lot of people getting many, many reinfections throughout their lives.”

It’s difficult to quantify how frequently people are reinfected, in part because many infections are now going unreported. Dr. Pulliam and her colleagues have collected enough data in South Africa to say that the rate is higher with Omicron than seen with previous variants.

This is not how it was supposed to be. Earlier in the pandemic, experts thought that immunity from vaccination or previous infection would forestall most reinfections.

The Omicron variant dashed those hopes. Unlike previous variants, Omicron and its many descendants seem to have evolved to partially dodge immunity. That leaves everyone — even those who have been vaccinated multiple times — vulnerable to multiple infections.

“If we manage it the way that we manage it now, then most people will get infected with it at least a couple of times a year,” said Kristian Andersen, a virologist at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego. “I would be very surprised if that’s not how it’s going to play out.”

The new variants have not altered the fundamental usefulness of the Covid vaccines. Most people who have received three or even just two doses will not become sick enough to need medical care if they test positive for the coronavirus. And a booster dose, like a previous bout with the virus, does seem to decrease the chance of reinfection — but not by much.

At the pandemic’s outset, many experts based their expectations of the coronavirus on influenza, the viral foe most familiar to them. They predicted that, as with the flu, there might be one big outbreak each year, most likely in the fall. The way to minimize its spread would be to vaccinate people before its arrival.

Instead, the coronavirus is behaving more like four of its closely related cousins, which circulate and cause colds year round. While studying common-cold coronaviruses, “we saw people with multiple infections within the space of a year,” said Jeffrey Shaman, an epidemiologist at Columbia University in New York.

If reinfection turns out to be the norm, the coronavirus is “not going to simply be this wintertime once-a-year thing,” he said, “and it’s not going to be a mild nuisance in terms of the amount of morbidity and mortality it causes.”

Reinfections with earlier variants, including Delta, did occur but were relatively infrequent. But in September, the pace of reinfections in South Africa seemed to pick up and was markedly high by November, when the Omicron variant was identified, Dr. Pulliam said.

Reinfections in South Africa, as in the United States, may seem even more noticeable because so many have been immunized or infected at least once by now.

“The perception magnifies what’s actually going on biologically,” Dr. Pulliam said. “It’s just that there are more people who are eligible for reinfection.”

The Omicron variant was different enough from Delta, and Delta from earlier versions of the virus, that some reinfections were to be expected. But now, Omicron seems to be evolving new forms that penetrate immune defenses with relatively few changes to its genetic code.

“This is actually for me a bit of a surprise,” said Alex Sigal, a virologist at the Africa Health Research Institute. “I thought we’ll need a kind of brand-new variant to escape from this one. But in fact, it seems like you don’t.”

An infection with Omicron produces a weaker immune response, which seems to wane quickly, compared with infections with previous variants. Although the newer versions of the variant are closely related, they vary enough from an immune perspective that infection with one doesn’t leave much protection against the others — and certainly not after three or four months.

Still, the good news is that most people who are reinfected with new versions of Omicron will not become seriously ill. At least at the moment, the virus has not hit upon a way to fully sidestep the immune system.

“That’s probably as good as it gets for now,” Dr. Sigal said. “The big danger might come when the variant will be completely different.”

Each infection may bring with it the possibility of long Covid, the constellation of symptoms that can persist for months or years. It’s too early to know how often an Omicron infection leads to long Covid, especially in vaccinated people.

To keep up with the evolving virus, other experts said, the Covid vaccines should be updated more quickly, even more quickly than flu vaccines are each year. Even an imperfect match to a new form of the coronavirus will still broaden immunity and offer some protection, they said.

“Every single time we think we’re through this, every single time we think we have the upper hand, the virus pulls a trick on us,” Dr. Andersen said. “The way to get it under control is not, ‘Let’s all get infected a few times a year and then hope for the best.’”


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43 comments
 

 1 month ago '17        #2
Lazy  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x2
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Herd immunity was a dumb strategy
+3   

 1 month ago '20        #3
I Know  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x7
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 ChrisPartlowFro said
You f*g**ts respect Trump and his family’s grifting but won’t get off Hunter Biden’s d*ck and he doesn’t even work for the government.



NBA Young Jailfag’s number one fan over here punching the air that nobody gives a fu*k about masks anymore OP’s own article says there’s nothing to see here






-1   

 1 month ago '06        #4
Storchaveli  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x5
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In before BX GED scientists and infectious disease experts.
+6   

 1 month ago '21        #5
Swisha2k11  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x3
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If you get infected with omnicron and develop long COVID, will FOX News somehow blame it on critical-race theory?

+7   

 1 month ago '10        #6
lltreyll 
Props total: 9146 9 K  Slaps total: 2657 2 K
I blame fat people the most for covid spreading how it has.

Not a whole lot of people want to talk about the fat, covid connection (ace2) or how covid spread the most in areas with an above average obesity rate...It's no mystery why. Unfortunately 2 out of 3 adults are overweight, and 1 out of 3 adults are obese in America.
+1   

 1 month ago '04        #7
TniaS 
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Cant get it if you never get tested for it........
+7   

 1 month ago '17        #8
CamburyBXGreat 
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 lltreyll said
I blame fat people the most for covid spreading how it has.

Not a whole lot of people want to talk about the fat, covid connection (ace2) or how covid spread the most in areas with an above average obesity rate...It's no mystery why. Unfortunately 2 out of 3 adults are overweight, and 1 out of 3 adults are obese in America.
It starts with the PCR test which by its own merit only indicates someone has the genetic material and does not mean they are infectious. Can you confirm a standard Cycle Threshold in labs, hospitals? Did the WHO or CDC or any particular country/state require CT to not be above or below a certain number?

 1 month ago '07        #9
yola  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x81
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 TniaS said
Cant get it if you never get tested for it........
using that logic, there's no need for that condom then
+2   

 1 month ago '10        #10
lltreyll 
Props total: 9146 9 K  Slaps total: 2657 2 K
 CamburyBXGreat said
It starts with the PCR test which by its own merit only indicates someone has the genetic material and does not mean they are infectious. Can you confirm a standard Cycle Threshold in labs, hospitals? Did the WHO or CDC or any particular country/state require CT to not be above or below a certain number?
Covid both infects and stays in adipose, fat tissue. So anybody ranging from overweight to obese will be more of a risk to themself and to others for carrying and spreading covid to themself and to others. Google the keywords "adipose ace2 covid" once, and you'll see why I've said this.
+4   

 1 month ago '05        #11
blackninja 
Props total: 25804 25 K  Slaps total: 2603 2 K
I don’t want COVID. I hope Monkeypox does not get out of hand even though it’s treatable.


 1 month ago '20        #12
Detr0it 
Props total: 6110 6 K  Slaps total: 230 230
Shiiiitttt, according to this girl at my job, about three times a month. Ain't seen that big booty heffa in about a month now...
+4   

 1 month ago '20        #13
OniEdition  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x4
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As many times as they spray it in the air.

No more, no less...
+2   

 1 month ago '15        #14
Tripsev 
Props total: 7401 7 K  Slaps total: 3338 3 K
 Ymmot said
The spread of the Omicron variant has given scientists an unsettling answer: repeatedly, sometimes within months.

A virus that shows no signs of disappearing, variants that are adept at dodging the body’s defenses, and waves of infections two, maybe three times a year — this may be the future of Covid-19, some scientists now fear.

The central problem is that the coronavirus has become more adept at reinfecting people. Already, those infected with the first Omicron variant are reporting second infections with the newer versions of the variant — BA.2 or BA2.12.1 in the United States, or BA.4 and BA.5 in South Africa.

Those people may go on to have third or fourth infections, even within this year, researchers said in interviews. And some small fraction may have symptoms that persist for months or years, a condition known as long Covid.

“It seems likely to me that that’s going to sort of be a long-term pattern,” said Juliet Pulliam, an epidemiologist at Stellenbosch University in South Africa.

“The virus is going to keep evolving,” she added. “And there are probably going to be a lot of people getting many, many reinfections throughout their lives.”

It’s difficult to quantify how frequently people are reinfected, in part because many infections are now going unreported. Dr. Pulliam and her colleagues have collected enough data in South Africa to say that the rate is higher with Omicron than seen with previous variants.

This is not how it was supposed to be. Earlier in the pandemic, experts thought that immunity from vaccination or previous infection would forestall most reinfections.

The Omicron variant dashed those hopes. Unlike previous variants, Omicron and its many descendants seem to have evolved to partially dodge immunity. That leaves everyone — even those who have been vaccinated multiple times — vulnerable to multiple infections.

“If we manage it the way that we manage it now, then most people will get infected with it at least a couple of times a year,” said Kristian Andersen, a virologist at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego. “I would be very surprised if that’s not how it’s going to play out.”

The new variants have not altered the fundamental usefulness of the Covid vaccines. Most people who have received three or even just two doses will not become sick enough to need medical care if they test positive for the coronavirus. And a booster dose, like a previous bout with the virus, does seem to decrease the chance of reinfection — but not by much.

At the pandemic’s outset, many experts based their expectations of the coronavirus on influenza, the viral foe most familiar to them. They predicted that, as with the flu, there might be one big outbreak each year, most likely in the fall. The way to minimize its spread would be to vaccinate people before its arrival.

Instead, the coronavirus is behaving more like four of its closely related cousins, which circulate and cause colds year round. While studying common-cold coronaviruses, “we saw people with multiple infections within the space of a year,” said Jeffrey Shaman, an epidemiologist at Columbia University in New York.

If reinfection turns out to be the norm, the coronavirus is “not going to simply be this wintertime once-a-year thing,” he said, “and it’s not going to be a mild nuisance in terms of the amount of morbidity and mortality it causes.”

Reinfections with earlier variants, including Delta, did occur but were relatively infrequent. But in September, the pace of reinfections in South Africa seemed to pick up and was markedly high by November, when the Omicron variant was identified, Dr. Pulliam said.

Reinfections in South Africa, as in the United States, may seem even more noticeable because so many have been immunized or infected at least once by now.

“The perception magnifies what’s actually going on biologically,” Dr. Pulliam said. “It’s just that there are more people who are eligible for reinfection.”

The Omicron variant was different enough from Delta, and Delta from earlier versions of the virus, that some reinfections were to be expected. But now, Omicron seems to be evolving new forms that penetrate immune defenses with relatively few changes to its genetic code.

“This is actually for me a bit of a surprise,” said Alex Sigal, a virologist at the Africa Health Research Institute. “I thought we’ll need a kind of brand-new variant to escape from this one. But in fact, it seems like you don’t.”

An infection with Omicron produces a weaker immune response, which seems to wane quickly, compared with infections with previous variants. Although the newer versions of the variant are closely related, they vary enough from an immune perspective that infection with one doesn’t leave much protection against the others — and certainly not after three or four months.

Still, the good news is that most people who are reinfected with new versions of Omicron will not become seriously ill. At least at the moment, the virus has not hit upon a way to fully sidestep the immune system.

“That’s probably as good as it gets for now,” Dr. Sigal said. “The big danger might come when the variant will be completely different.”

Each infection may bring with it the possibility of long Covid, the constellation of symptoms that can persist for months or years. It’s too early to know how often an Omicron infection leads to long Covid, especially in vaccinated people.

To keep up with the evolving virus, other experts said, the Covid vaccines should be updated more quickly, even more quickly than flu vaccines are each year. Even an imperfect match to a new form of the coronavirus will still broaden immunity and offer some protection, they said.

“Every single time we think we’re through this, every single time we think we have the upper hand, the virus pulls a trick on us,” Dr. Andersen said. “The way to get it under control is not, ‘Let’s all get infected a few times a year and then hope for the best.’”



Stfu
+1   

 1 month ago '17        #15
CamburyBXGreat 
Props total: 38472 38 K  Slaps total: 22451 22 K
 lltreyll said
Covid both infects and stays in adipose, fat tissue. So anybody ranging from overweight to obese will be more of a risk to themself and to others for carrying and spreading covid to themself and to others. Google the keywords "adipose ace2 covid" once, and you'll see why I've said this.
You are blaming fat people for giving it to fat people and fat people dying? How does that even make sense.


But anyway answer my question to establish a foundation for the conversation.
-1   

 1 month ago '20        #16
OniEdition  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x4
Props total: 12248 12 K  Slaps total: 4018 4 K
OP is a confirmed phaggot a*s agent who wants to depopulate the world.

Lame bi*ch...
+5   

 1 month ago '17        #17
FreeSmoke  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x4
Props total: 26083 26 K  Slaps total: 6509 6 K
I've had it 3 times

First time nearly took me out but I was already in a bad state before hand

2nd 2 times was nothing didn't even know till tested

Still not vaxxed

Everyone crying about these new variants but that first variant was k*ller boa
+1   

 1 month ago '17        #18
Ymmot  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x5 OP
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 Tripsev said
Stfu
Let me show you how much I care about your emotions, little girl...........
-5   

 1 month ago '17        #19
Ymmot  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x5 OP
Props total: 107516 107 K  Slaps total: 35960 35 K
 OniEdition said
OP is a confirmed phaggot a*s agent who wants to depopulate the world.

Lame bi*ch...
I want to depopulate the world? The fu*k is your drug addicted paranoid a*s talking about?
-3   

 1 month ago '04        #20
collegeboy58 
Props total: 24376 24 K  Slaps total: 1203 1 K
I tested positive Monday for Covid
-1   

 1 month ago '19        #21
Mr Insecurity  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x4
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 yola said
using that logic, there's no need for that condom then
Exactly.

“Hey y’all, I’m 100% cancer free!!!”

“That’s great. Your tests came back negative?”

“No test results. I didn’t get tested at all…so I can’t have cancer”.
+1   

 1 month ago '04        #22
ItAlY2BkLyN 
Props total: 41601 41 K  Slaps total: 9030 9 K
 FreeSmoke said
I've had it 3 times

First time nearly took me out but I was already in a bad state before hand

2nd 2 times was nothing didn't even know till tested

Still not vaxxed

Everyone crying about these new variants but that first variant was k*ller boa
I had the OG covid too. Then got the Omni version in January. Second time was definitely not as bad as the first. About 2 days of feeling like sh*t as opposed to 2 solid weeks of the bullsh*t.



This is what happens when you release a controlled substance out into nature. It is no longer controlled
+1   

 1 month ago '15        #23
Tripsev 
Props total: 7401 7 K  Slaps total: 3338 3 K
 Ymmot said
Let me show you how much I care about your emotions, little girl...........
You’re a baby back bi*ch that’s scared of a cold. You probably have 4 boosters, wear two masks, and smoke cigarettes and eat fast food.

You’re a plague to society.


Find a life and live it.
+3   

 1 month ago '15        #24
Tripsev 
Props total: 7401 7 K  Slaps total: 3338 3 K
 OniEdition said
OP is a confirmed phaggot a*s agent who wants to depopulate the world.

Lame bi*ch...


I can confirm. He is indeed a phaggot a*s agent who is also a baby back bi*ch
+2   

 1 month ago '15        #25
Tripsev 
Props total: 7401 7 K  Slaps total: 3338 3 K
Covid isn’t sh*t unless you are an unhealthy fu*k. The end.



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