3,670
 

Apr 18 - Fresh off Ramadan Arabs In Israel are Rioting and Attacking Rabbi's



ADVERTISEMENT
 
topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot 3X PLAT
most viewed right now
-19  256
99 replies  @sports




section  x1   |  0 bx goons and 1 bystanders Share this on Twitter       Share this on Facebook

section news
  
 2 weeks ago '05        #1
1019 page views
62 comments


ice wolf  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x3
avatar
Props total: 18589 18 K  Slaps total: 6604 6 K
Apr 18 - Fresh off Ramadan Arabs In Israel are Rioting and Attacking Rabbi's
 

 




best
worst
62 comments
 

 2 weeks ago '20        #2
SmoothCheese  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x4
Props total: 340 340  Slaps total: 80 80
This is the reality there. Arabs Gon Wild!
-8   

 2 weeks ago '05        #3
ice wolf  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x3 OP
Props total: 18589 18 K  Slaps total: 6604 6 K
Great way to end a religious celebration, right?
+4   

 2 weeks ago '16        #4
foshoVoodoo  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x31
Props total: 95242 95 K  Slaps total: 17799 17 K
ashe dutty boukman
ashe toussant
limb by mf limb
+5   

 2 weeks ago '20        #5
MeNoSenYouNoCom  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x6
Props total: 25034 25 K  Slaps total: 2510 2 K
fu*k12
+2   

 2 weeks ago '16        #6
Hoggystyle  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x7
Props total: 68080 68 K  Slaps total: 7730 7 K
Ramadan just started wtf u talkin bout
+18   

 2 weeks ago '06        #7
fresh3000 
Props total: 3692 3 K  Slaps total: 423 423
 foshoVoodoo said
ashe dutty boukman
ashe toussant
limb by mf limb
"send fi hacksaw"
+4   

 2 weeks ago '20        #8
thatfrenchguy  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x8
Props total: 4425 4 K  Slaps total: 1370 1 K
arabs putting potentially everybody at risk while following a book of fantasy
-8   

 2 weeks ago '08        #9
Shaz2003 
Props total: 372 372  Slaps total: 21 21
Ramadan is month long, we are only a week into it!
+8   

 2 weeks ago '16        #10
00010111  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x4
Props total: 37491 37 K  Slaps total: 4165 4 K
 thatfrenchguy said
arabs putting potentially everybody at risk while following a book of fantasy
And Jews aren't?

They're two sides of the same bullsh*t coin.
+11   

 2 weeks ago '18        #11
dacoolestg 
Props total: 11295 11 K  Slaps total: 1709 1 K
 foshoVoodoo said
ashe dutty boukman
ashe toussant
limb by mf limb
koupè tet boulè kay


Last edited by dacoolestg; 04-19-2021 at 06:10 AM..
+1   

 2 weeks ago '18        #12
dacoolestg 
Props total: 11295 11 K  Slaps total: 1709 1 K
love to see it
-2   

 2 weeks ago '16        #13
foshoVoodoo  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x31
Props total: 95242 95 K  Slaps total: 17799 17 K
now is the time where shia and sunni should come together and murk these vampires
+4   

 2 weeks ago '20        #14
Bateman 
Props total: 9952 9 K  Slaps total: 792 792
Legit one part of the world that will NEVER see peace

Land taken from them and then painted as the aggressor on all media platforms

I mean sometimes they are the aggressor but they had their land taken from them and were told

“This land is rightfully ours because we are god’s children”

what would you do?
+9   

 2 weeks ago '09        #15
Toss 
Props total: 3788 3 K  Slaps total: 563 563
Ramadan has just started
+1   

Top 10 most propped recently  2 weeks ago '09        #16
ahmadou1  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1
Props total: 78634 78 K  Slaps total: 5611 5 K
 00010111 said
And Jews aren't?

They're two sides of the same bullsh*t coin.
Buddy said that like the Jews haven't been the aggressors for decades
+2   

Top 10 most propped recently  2 weeks ago '09        #17
ahmadou1  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1
Props total: 78634 78 K  Slaps total: 5611 5 K
 Bateman said
Legit one part of the world that will NEVER see peace

Land taken from them and then painted as the aggressor on all media platforms

I mean sometimes they are the aggressor but they had their land taken from them and were told

“This land is rightfully ours because we are god’s children”

what would you do?
And the people saying it's their land can't even trace their lineage back to those "chosen people" smh
+3   

 2 weeks ago '20        #18
confidential1  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1
Props total: 44624 44 K  Slaps total: 2332 2 K
White supremacy is a global issue
+3   

 2 weeks ago '04        #19
datboy|e 
Props total: 16101 16 K  Slaps total: 5437 5 K
fu*k them Arabs up

 2 weeks ago '05        #20
ice wolf  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x3 OP
Props total: 18589 18 K  Slaps total: 6604 6 K
 ahmadou1 said
And the people saying it's their land can't even trace their lineage back to those "chosen people" smh
That's a racist lie. Jews have scientifically proven their lineage dating back to their ancestors, but you're probably too slow to understand.


-2   

 2 weeks ago '05        #21
ice wolf  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x3 OP
Props total: 18589 18 K  Slaps total: 6604 6 K
 confidential1 said
White supremacy is a global issue
Stupidity and identity politics are a global issue too. The left wants us all to focus on skin color in 2021.

Palestinians and Jews are often indisguishable. Issues there have nothing to do with skin color. Jews come in many different shades.




-1   

 2 weeks ago '20        #22
confidential1  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x1
Props total: 44624 44 K  Slaps total: 2332 2 K
 ice wolf said
Stupidity and identity politics are a global issue too. The left wants us all to focus on skin color in 2021.

Palestinians and Jews are often indisguishable. Issues there have nothing to do with skin color. Jews come in many different shades.



Palestinians and Jews ARE indistinguishable because they’re essentially the same people divided by religion...

However, Ashkenazi are far from authentic Jews but rather the majority are Caucasian (German,Poland maybe even Russian converts). It was these people who started Zionism and established an essential caste system within Judaism and have the superiority... ala white supremacy
+5   

 2 weeks ago '05        #23
ice wolf  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x3 OP
Props total: 18589 18 K  Slaps total: 6604 6 K
 confidential1 said
Palestinians and Jews ARE indistinguishable because they’re essentially the same people divided by religion...

However, Ashkenazi are far from authentic Jews but rather the majority are Caucasian (German,Poland maybe even Russian converts). It was these people who started Zionism and established an essential caste system within Judaism and have the superiority... ala white supremacy
False. Ashkenazi Jews are the descendants of ancient Israel that have been living in Europe for 2,000 years. They are a mix of middle-eastern DNA and European DNA. It's not up for debate. It's been proven scientifically. Only racists believe the Khazar myth.



For more than a century, Jews and non-Jews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and between-group Jewish genetic identity. Here, genome-wide analysis of seven Jewish groups (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi) and comparison with non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the so-called demographic miracle of population expansion from 50,000 people at the beginning of the 15th century to 5,000,000 people at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads.

Go to:
Introduction
Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE1 and have maintained continuous genetic, cultural, and religious traditions since that time, despite a series of Diasporas.2 Middle Eastern (Iranian and Iraqi) Jews date from communities that were formed in the Babylon and Persian Empires in the fourth to sixth centuries BCE.3,4 Jewish communities in the Balkans, Italy, North Africa, and Syria were formed during classical antiquity and then admixed with Sephardic Jews who migrated after their expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century.5 Ashkenazi Jews are thought to have settled in the Rhine Valley during the first millennium of the Common Era, then to have migrated into Eastern Europe between the 11th and 15th centuries, although alternative theories involving descent from Sorbs (Slavic speakers in Germany) and Khazars have also been proposed.6,7 Admixture with surrounding populations had an early role in shaping world Jewry, but, during the past 2000 years, may have been limited by religious law as Judaism evolved from a proselytizing to an inward-looking religion.8

Earlier genetic studies on blood groups and serum markers suggested that Jewish Diaspora populations had Middle Eastern origin, with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations than with non-Jewish populations.9–11 These studies differed in their interpretation of the degree of admixture with local populations. Recent studies of Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes have pointed to founder effects of both Middle Eastern and local origin, yet the issue of how to characterize Jewish people as mere coreligionists or as genetic isolates that may be closely or loosely related remains unresolved.12–16 To improve the understanding about the relatedness of contemporary Jewish groups, genome-wide analysis and comparison with neighboring populations was performed for representatives of three major groups of the Jewish Diaspora: Eastern European Ashkenazim; Italian, Greek, and Turkish Sephardim; and Iranian, Iraqi, and Syrian Mizrahim (Middle Easterners).

Go to:
Material and Methods
Recruitment and Genotyping of Jewish Populations
Participants were recruited from the Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, and Ashkenazi Jewish communities in the metropolitan New York region. Participants were recruited from the Turkish Sephardic Jewish community in Seattle, from the Greek Sephardic Jewish communities in Thessaloniki and Athens, and from the Italian Jewish community in Rome, the latter as previously described.17 All of the recruitments took place under a New York University School of Medicine Institutional Review Board-approved protocol (07-333 “Origins and Migrations of Jewish People”). Additional recruitment of Iraqi and Turkish Sephardic Jews occurred at Sheba Medical Centre in Tel Hashomer, Israel, under a local ethics committee- and an Israeli Ministry of Health Institutional Review Board-approved protocol. In every case, subjects provided informed consent. They were included only if all four grandparents came from the same Jewish community. Subjects were excluded if they were known first- or second-degree relatives of other participants or were found to have IBD coefficients ≥.30 by analysis of microarray data. Genotyping was performed with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affy v 6) at the genomic facility at Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

DNA Preparation for SNP Array Analysis
DNA was prepared according to standard methods. Quality and quantity of genomic DNA was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis to a*sure that only high-molecule-weight DNA was present and by absorbance at 230, 260, and 280 nm to determine DNA concentration and a*sure that protein and organic contaminants were not present.

Genotyping
Genomic DNA samples were genotyped with the Affy v 6 in accordance with the manufacturer's protocols. A total of 305 Jewish samples were successfully genotyped at call rates >99% and with no gender mismatch. The resulting individuals were tested for relatedness via genome-wide IBD estimates. Samples were excluded if the IBD coefficients were ≥0.30, as this suggests hidden relatedness. To a*sure that members came from the stated community, the SMART PCA program from EIGENSOFT package used to remove genetic outliers (defined as having greater than six standard deviations from the mean PC position on at least one of the top ten eigenvectors). A total of 14 were observed and these samples were removed. Ultimately, 237 samples were used for comparative analyses. Results of samples of known European origin that were run on Affy v 6 arrays were included in the PCA analysis. These overlapped completely with the results from the current study, indicating the absence of a batch effect.

Reference Populations
HGDP Data Set
The Jewish data set was analyzed along with a selected HGDP data sets. The original HGDP data set had 1043 unrelated individuals from 52 world-wide populations.18 First, 28 extreme outliers identified by three independent preliminary PCA runs on a set of small randomly selected SNPs was removed. To reduce the size of the data set, members of related population groups were combined, including Pakistani (Balochi, Brahui, Burusho, Makrani, Pastun, Sindi, Uyghur), Southern American (Colombian, Karitiana, Maya, Pima, Surui), Central/Southern African (Bantu, Biaka, Mandenka, Mbuti Pygmy, Mozabite, San, Yoruba), and East Asian (Khmer, Dai, Daur, Northern Chinese Han, Southern Chinese Han, Hezhen, Japanese, Lahu, Miao, Mongolian, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Xibo, Yi), and then 25 samples were selected randomly from each population. The final number of samples in this selected HGDP data set was 418. These came from 16 populations: North African (Mozabite), Central and South African, East Asian, Southern American, Pakistani_Hazara, Pakistani_Kalash, Pakistani_Other, Middle Eastern_Bedouin, Middle Eastern_Druze, Middle Eastern_Palestinian, Adygei, Russian, Basque, French, Northern Italian (Bergamo and Tuscan), and Sardinian. No significant differences were observed in the results when different data sets containing independent, randomly selected samples were used. To get a closer view of Jewish population structure, a localized data set was generated that combined the Jewish populations, three Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations, and six European populations. The HGDP samples were genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap650K Beadchips, as previously described. After filtering SNPs with call rate <95% and extracting overlapping SNP sets between two different platforms, 164,894 SNPs were used for further analysis.
-2   

 2 weeks ago '05        #24
ice wolf  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x3 OP
Props total: 18589 18 K  Slaps total: 6604 6 K
PopRes Data Set
The Population Reference Sample (PopRes) project included more than 6000 individuals of African-American, East Asian, South Asian, Mexican, and European origin after quality control, of which 2407 individuals of unmixed ancestry were collected from a wide variety of European countries.19 These were genotyped on the Affymetrix 500K chip. To study the relationships between Jewish and European population, a localized data set was generated that combined the Jewish data set with selected PopRes data. First, 25 extreme outliers identified by three independent preliminary PCA runs on a small set of randomly selected SNPs were removed. Next, each of 2407 European subjects was a*signed into one of 10 groups based on geographic region: South: Italy, Swiss-Italian; Southeast: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia; Southwest: Portugal, Spain; East: Czech Republic, Hungary; East-Southeast: Cyprus, Turkey; Central: Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Swiss-German; West: Belgium, France, Swiss-French, Switzerland; North: Denmark, Norway, Sweden; Northeast: Finland, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Ukraine; Northwest: Ireland, Scotland, UK. To reduce the size of the data set, 50 samples were randomly selected from each geographic group whenever the sample size was greater than 50. The final number of samples in this selected PopRes data set was 383. No significant difference in the results was observed when different data sets containing independently selected samples were used. After filtering out SNPs with call rate < 95% and extracting overlapping SNP sets between two different platforms, 362,566 SNPs were used for further analysis. This sparser set of SNPs maintains ability to detect IBD, yet is larger than that used in a recent study of genetic structure of the Han Chinese (Figure S9 available online).21

Fst, Observed Heterozygosity, and Phylogenetic Analysis
Population divergence was measured with the pairwise FST statistic, calculated with the method of Weir and c*ckerham.22 Confidence intervals of the FST were calculated by bootstrap resampling, with 500 replications. The genetic diversity across all loci within each population was a*sessed by using the observed heterozygosity (Ho), calculated from GenePop 4.0 (1 − Qinter). The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on pairwise FST distance was constructed with MEGA4.23 A Sub-Saharan African population was used as an out-group to root the phylogenetic tree. Bootstrap analyses indicated that the phylogenetic tree is quite robust. Nonetheless, it is unlikely that these populations followed a strict tree-like model of evolution, given the abundance of admixture and gene flow between groups.

Principal Component and STRUCTURE Analysis
Principal component analysis was performed with the Smartpca program from the EIGENSOFT package (version 2.0).24 Except the initial run (to remove extreme genetic outliers), the analyses were performed without removal of outliers. To infer the population structure, a Bayesian model-based clustering method, implemented in the STRUCTURE version 2.2 software package was used for the global data set.29 To reduce the running time while still maintaining the information of population structure within the data set, a subset of 3904 SNPs with highest informativeness across all populations was used. SNPs informativeness was estimated by using average genetic distance difference (δ) among populations studied. For each population pair, δ was calculated as the sum of the absolute differences between allele frequencies. Markers were then ranked and top 5% of SNPs were selected for subsequent STRUCTURE analysis. The program was run 10 times for K values 2–6. All structure runs used 30,000 burn-in cycles followed by 30,000 MCMC iterations, a*suming correlated allele frequencies and admixture model with separate alpha estimated for each population. The results from all replicates for each K were aligned with CLUMPP.25 Mean individual Q matrices were plotted with DISTRUCT.26

Differences between Subgroups Pairwise Fst, IBS, and ANOVA
Formal statistical t testing was performed of each pairwise Fst to demonstrate that they differed from zero (Tables S2 and S3). Permutation tests were performed for between-group identity-by-state (IBS) with 10,000 permutations for all pair-wise comparisons of 7 Jewish populations. The results showed that comparisons of individuals from the same Jewish populations were genetically much more similar than those from Jewish-non-Jewish and non-Jewish-non-Jewish populations (p values are generally smaller than 10−4—see Table S5 for details). In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to each subgroup's Eigenvalue PCA average to test whether paired populations were different.24

CNV Analysis
Informative CNVs were chosen based on the location of 164,894 SNPs that were used in our SNP analysis. One CNV upstream and one CNV downstream in close proximity to the candidate SNP were included in this analysis. In the cases of SNPs aggregation, CNVs from the regions flanking the SNPs were chosen. PCA analysis was performed on .cel files for 275,000 flanking CNVs from the 237 samples with JMP Genomics 4 (SAS Inc., Cary, NC). To account for biased copy numbers (more than 3 per locus), the values were reassigned new integral values: copy number 1 = 0, copy number 2 = 1, and ≥ copy number 3 = 2.

IBD Discovery
IBD segments were detected with the GERMLINE algorithm in Genotype Extension.27 GERMLINE identifies pairwise IBD shared segments in time proportional to the number of individuals processed. In brief, the algorithm rapidly seeks out short, exact pairwise matches between individuals, and then extends from these seeds to long, inexact matches that are indicative of IBD. The output of GERMLINE was used to detect unreported close relatives, who were omitted from the analysis. Two individuals were considered cryptic relatives if their total sharing is larger than 1500 cM and if the average segment length is more than 25 cM, suggesting an avuncular or closer relationship. The output was also used to produce sharing densities, sharing graphs, and sharing statistics.

Inference of Population History
To estimate population parameters, data were simulated with Genome, with default parameters of recombination rate and block size.28 Population size and timing of founder/split events were attempted as described in Figure S10 to best fit observed data. Theoretical analysis suggests that the number of IBD segments of a particular length L resulting from a shared ancestor k generations ago, decreases, for a fixed k, as an exponential function of L. A history of rapid expansion after a recent bottleneck implies that a large fraction of IBD segments are due to the bottleneck generation, consistent with the exponential decay of shared segments as a function of L, that is observed in Ashkenazi samples. In contrast, a fixed-size population will have segments resulting from ancestors at different generations, producing a different decay pattern, as a sum of exponentials.

Statistical Analyses of Interpopulation Differences and Neighbor Joining Trees
To identify whether there are significant genetic differences between Jewish populations, PLINK was used to run permutation test (10,000 permutations) for between-group IBS differences. The neighbor joining tree was generated by using pairwise FST. To a*sess the reliability of the NJ tree, SNP loci were randomly sampled 500 times and distance matrix were generated from each sampling data set. The function “Neighbor” from PHYLIP was used to construct all bootstrap trees, and then “Consense” was used to get bootstrap consensus tree and bootstrap support values for each node.42

GERMLINE Analysis
Genotype Extension
In its latest version, GERMLINE can be used in Haplotype Extension or Genotype Extension.27 The Haplotype Extension is intended to process well-phased data, where it performs with near-perfect accuracy; however, performance can suffer when the data is phased poorly, as can be the case when trio or family data are unavailable. This analysis was performed with the Genotype Extension, where heterozygous markers are treated as wildcards and IBD segments are detected with long segments of mutually homozygous markers. The first stage of GERMLINE searches for seed matches of completely identical haplotypes in computationally phased data. Seeds of k = 128 common SNPs were used for Affy v 6 SNP 6.0 data, and k = 32 common SNPs for the sparser set of SNPs in the intersection this SNP array with the HGDP SNP set. Genotype extension then attempts to extend each seed match between a pair of samples by a*suming a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) would well describe the genotypes of the IBD pair along the IBD segment extending the match. This HMM have been previously used in standard tools, such as PLINK (–segment option), or other work for the entire process of IBD detection.41 A speedup of the HMM analysis was implemented that advances 64 SNPs at a time and requires a*sumptions on genotyping accuracy. In this analysis, one inconsistency was allowed for Affy v 6 SNP 6.0 data and zero inconsistencies for the sparser data.

Filtering Regions for Informative SNPs
GERMLINE output was filtered to ensure consistency across genotyping platforms and to remove noise by filtering out regions of low information content. SNP density in sliding, nonoverlapping blocks across the genome was used to filter shared segments that spanned SNP-sparse regions, particularly the edges of the centromere and telomere. Specifically, regions that presented less than 100 SNPs per megabase or 100 SNPs per centimorgan were identified and excised and, subsequently, shared segments that were shorter than 3 cM were removed.

Sharing Densities
Histograms of post-processed sharing densities were represented by Manhattan-style plots, where the y axis represents the chance of a random pair of individuals having a shared segment at a SNP: all pairs of individuals sharing a segment across that position were counted and normalized by the total number of potential pairs. Within populations, the normalization factor was equal to(n2), where n is the population size. Between populations, it was the product of the respective sizes.

Sharing Graphs
The amount of sharing for the analyzed data set was visualized with the ShareViz software. Individuals were represented as nodes, grouped into populations of origin. The thickness of the edges between nodes represent the total amount of sharing (in centimorgans) between each pair of individuals. For presenting populations geographically, planar quasi-isometric embedding (ISOMAP) was used, where distances between populations were defined as inverse of the populations' pairwise average
-2   

 2 weeks ago '17        #25
Timberwolves  topics gone triple plat - Number 1 spot x18
Props total: 30647 30 K  Slaps total: 3514 3 K
so you want to push the narrative that Arabs are opressing Israelis?
+3   



Sign me up
 
 

yesterday...


most viewed right now
+59online now  26
May 4 - World’s Most Vaccinated Nation Reintroduces Lockdowns as Cases Surge
320 comments
21 hours ago
@news
most viewed right now
online now  24
Image(s) inside Meek Mill Buys Up $50K Worth Of Dogecoin Amid Price Surge
279 comments
1 day ago
@hiphop
most viewed right now
+43online now  19
Video inside Wtf is in that bottle
96 comments
1 day ago
@wild'ish
most viewed right now
+38online now  12
Are these MMA f*ghters supposed to be angry....uhhh...
80 comments
1 day ago
@sports
back to top
register register Follow BX @ Twitter search BX privacyprivacy