(12/12)VA_Joe Budden_Mood_Muzik_3(Its_About_To_Get_Wor se)-2007-
|1 (0 bx goons and 1 bystanders)|
|Hiatus (Produced by Mellow Madness)||21||5.68%|
|Ventilation (Produced by The Klasix)||6||1.62%|
|Talk to Em (Produced by WMS Sultan)||18||4.86%|
|WarFare Ft Joell Ortiz (Produced by The Klasix)||7||1.89%|
|Invisible Man (Produced by Chemo)||7||1.89%|
|Dear Diary (Produced by WMS Sultan)||20||5.41%|
|Get No Younger (Produced by The Klasix)||2||0.54%|
|Star Inside (Produced by Dub B)||5||1.35%|
|Send Him Our Love (Produced by The Klasix)||28||7.57%|
|Family Reunion Ft Ransom/Hitch/Fabolous (Produced by Shatek)||23||6.22%|
|5th Gear (Produced by WMS Sultan)||16||4.32%|
|Roll Call (Produced by WMS Sultan)||18||4.86%|
|Secrets (Produced by The Klasix)||7||1.89%|
|All Of Me (Produced by The Klasix)||77||20.81%|
|Long Way To Go (Produced by SoulSearchin')||29||7.84%|
|Thou Shall Not Fall (Produced by The Klasix)||10||2.70%|
|Still My Hood (Produced by Wyks)||7||1.89%|
|No Favorite, There all FIRE! (For the Stans!)||43||11.62%|
|No Favorite, They all SUCK! (For the Haters!)||26||7.03%|
|Voters: 370. Sorry, you cannot vote on this poll (Boxden members only)
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|12-12-2007, 08:54 PM||#748|
The Bill of Rights (1–10)
Main article: United States Bill of Rights
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
United States Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights currently housed in the National ArchivesThe Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Those amendments were adopted between 1789 and 1791, and all relate to limiting the power of the federal government. They were added in response to criticisms of the Constitution by the state ratification conventions and by prominent individuals such as Thomas Jefferson (who was not a delegate to the Constitutional Convention). These critics argued that without further restraints, the strong central government would become tyrannical. The amendments were proposed by Congress as part of a block of twelve in September 1789. By December 1791 a sufficient number of states had ratified ten of the twelve proposals, and the Bill of Rights became part of the Constitution.
It is commonly understood that the Bill of Rights was not originally intended to apply to the states, though except where amendments refer specifically to the Federal Government or a branch thereof (as in the first amendment, under which some states in the early years of the nation officially established a religion), there is no such delineation in the text itself. Nevertheless, a general interpretation of inapplicability to the states remained until 1868, when the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, which stated, in part, that:
“ No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. ”
The Supreme Court has interpreted this clause to extend most, but not all, parts of the Bill of Rights to the states. Nevertheless, the balance of state and federal power has remained a battle in the Supreme Court.
The amendments that became the Bill of Rights were actually the last ten of the twelve amendments proposed in 1789. The second of the twelve proposed amendments, regarding the compensation of members of Congress, remained unratified until 1992, when the legislatures of enough states finally approved it and, as a result, it became the Twenty-seventh Amendment despite more than two centuries of pendency. The first of the twelve—still technically pending before the state legislatures for ratification—pertains to the apportionment of the United States House of Representatives after each decennial census. The most recent state whose lawmakers are known to have ratified this proposal is Kentucky in 1792, during that commonwealth's first month of statehood.
First Amendment: addresses the rights of freedom of religion (prohibiting Congressional establishment of a religion over another religion through Law and protecting the right to free exercise of religion), freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of a.ssembly, and freedom of petition.
Second Amendment: declares "a well regulated militia" as "necessary to the security of a free State", and as explanation for prohibiting infringement of "the right of the people to keep and bear arms."
Third Amendment: prohibits the government from using private homes as quarters for soldiers without the consent of the owners. The only existing case law regarding this amendment is a lower court decision in the case of Engblom v. Carey. 
Fourth Amendment: guards against searches, arrests, and seizures of property without a specific warrant or a "probable cause" to believe a crime has been committed. Some rights to privacy have been inferred from this amendment and others by the Supreme Court.
Fifth Amendment: forbids trial for a major crime except after indictment by a grand jury; prohibits double jeopardy (repeated trials), except in certain very limited circumstances; forbids punishment without due process of law; and provides that an accused person may not be compelled to testify against himself (this is also known as "Taking the Fifth" or "Pleading the Fifth"). This is regarded as the "rights of the accused" amendment. It also prohibits government from taking private property without "just compensation," the basis of eminent domain in the United States.
Sixth Amendment: guarantees a speedy public trial for criminal offenses. It requires trial by a jury, guarantees the right to legal counsel for the accused, and guarantees that the accused may require witnesses to attend the trial and testify in the presence of the accused. It also guarantees the accused a right to know the charges against him. The Sixth Amendment has several court cases a.ssociated with it, including Powell v. Alabama, United States v. Wong Kim Ark, Gideon v. Wainwright, and Crawford v. Washington. In 1966, the Supreme Court ruled that the fifth amendment prohibition on forced self-incrimination and the sixth amendment clause on right to counsel were to be made known to all persons placed under arrest, and these clauses have become known as the Miranda rights.
Seventh Amendment: a.ssures trial by jury in civil cases.
Eighth Amendment: forbids excessive bail or fines, and cruel and unusual punishment.
Ninth Amendment: declares that the listing of individual rights in the Constitution and Bill of Rights is not meant to be comprehensive; and that the other rights not specifically mentioned are retained elsewhere by the people.
Tenth Amendment: provides that powers that the Constitution does not delegate to the United States and does not prohibit the states from exercising, are "reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
Subsequent amendments (11–27)
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Additional amendments to the United States ConstitutionAmendments to the Constitution subsequent to the Bill of Rights cover many subjects. The majority of the seventeen later amendments stem from continued efforts to expand individual civil or political liberties, while a few are concerned with modifying the basic governmental structure drafted in Philadelphia in 1787. Although the United States Constitution has been amended a total of 27 times, only 26 of the amendments are currently used because the 21st amendment supersedes the 18th.
Eleventh Amendment (1795): Clarifies judicial power over foreign nationals, and limits ability of citizens to sue states in federal courts and under federal law. (Full text)
Twelfth Amendment (1804): Changes the method of presidential elections so that members of the electoral college cast separate ballots for president and vice president. (Full text)
Thirteenth Amendment (1865): Abolishes slavery and grants Congress power to enforce abolition. (Full text)
Fourteenth Amendment (1868): Defines United States citizenship; prohibits states from abridging citizens' privileges or immunities and rights to due process and the equal protection of the law; repeals the Three-fifths compromise; prohibits repudiation of the federal debt caused by the Civil War. (Full text)
Fifteenth Amendment (1870): Forbids the federal government and the states from using a citizen's race, color, or previous status as a slave as a qualification for voting. (Full text)
Sixteenth Amendment (1913): Authorizes unapportioned federal taxes on income. (Full text)
Seventeenth Amendment (1913): Establishes direct election of senators. (Full text)
Eighteenth Amendment (1919): Prohibited the manufacturing, importing, and exporting of alcoholic beverages (see Prohibition in the United States). Repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment. (Full text)
Nineteenth Amendment (1920): Prohibits the federal government and the states from forbidding any citizen to vote due to their s3x. (Full text)
Twentieth Amendment (1933): Changes details of Congressional and presidential terms and of presidential succession. (Full text)
Twenty-first Amendment (1933): Repeals Eighteenth Amendment. Permits states to prohibit the importation of alcoholic beverages. (Full text)
Twenty-second Amendment (1951): Limits president to two terms. (Full text)
Twenty-third Amendment (1961): Grants presidential electors to the District of Columbia. (Full text)
Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964): Prohibits the federal government and the states from requiring the payment of a tax as a qualification for voting for federal officials. (Full text)
Twenty-fifth Amendment (1967): Changes details of presidential succession, provides for temporary removal of president, and provides for replacement of the vice president. (Full text)
Twenty-sixth Amendment (1971): Prohibits the federal government and the states from forbidding any citizen of age 18 or greater to vote simply because of their age. (Full text)
Twenty-seventh Amendment (1992): Limits congressional pay raises. (Full text)
|12-12-2007, 08:57 PM||#751|